Utilization of fascinating properties such as localized surf
Utilization of fascinating properties, such as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), high fluorescent quantum yield, biocompatible nature, chromogenic and electrocatalytic functionality of several nanomaterials for histamine sensing is also quite evident where the nanomaterials have served as label, color generating, and/or amplifying agent. Till date, to the best of our knowledge, more than twenty nanobioanalytical methods have been realized to detect histamine in the fish sample and other food products (Table 1). In this review paper, we have highlighted some important nanomaterials-based histamine sensing strategies, where the main emphasis is given on optical (fluorescence, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, surface plasmon resonance) and electrochemical (pulse voltammetric, amperometric, impedimetric, potentiometric, etc.) transduction methods (Fig. 1). The nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles and carbon-based nanomaterials and their properties, which have been exploited for the development of histamine sensor, are discussed in detail. Further, the potential of optical and electrochemical nanosensors for histamine detection is compared which will help the readers to understand the advantages and limitations of the respective transduction techniques. The paper is concluded with a discussion on the current challenges, prospects, and the translational research which might pave the way for the development of field-deployable histamine sensors.
Optical nanosensors for histamine detection
Electrochemical sensor Convergence of nanomaterials and electrochemical sensors has significantly improved the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors. Particularly, graphene, carbon nanotubes and metal nanoparticles or their composites, have been investigated in detail for electrochemical detection of numerous types of chemicals and biochemicals including histamine (Dhara, Stanley, Nair, & Satheesh Babu, 2014; Nagaiah, Schäfer, Schuhmann, & Dimcheva, 2013; Wang et al., 2014). This is because of their excellent physical, mechanical, electronic and chemical properties (Shao et al., 2010; Wang, 2005). Particularly for biosensor applications, these materials help in increasing the conductivity at the electrode surface because of the presence of sp2-hybridized in case of carbon nanomaterials while free in case of metal nanoparticles (Kumar & Goyal, 2018; Zhu et al., 2012). Additionally, the conjugation of an antibody or other receptor moieties with nanomaterials can be achieved easily as most of these nanoparticles bear carboxylic apiii synthesis or amine functional groups (Atieh et al., 2010; Bitounis, Ali Boucetta, Hong, Min, & Kostarelos, 2013; Justino, Gomes, Freitas, Duarte, & Rocha Santos, 2017; Švorčík et al., 2014). These have been successfully used for the detection of histamine as well. Yang, Zhang, and Chen (2015) developed a competitive immunosensing based electrochemical sensor for histamine detection using graphene-modified electrode (Yang et al., 2015). In this study, histamine bound with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzymes was used as a competitor for the free histamine. Upon interaction, both free and bound histamine competes to form a complex with the anti-histamine antibody, present on the graphene-coated electrode. After the interaction, the amount of histamine is estimated by means of HRP enzyme catalyzed specific 3,3-dimethoxybenzidine polymerization reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This reaction results in the deposition of a poly (3,3-dimethoxybenzidine) film (viz. insulating in nature) over the electrode surface. As a result, the electrochemical current of the electrode in Fe(CN)63−/4- solution decreases as an inverse function of histamine levels in the sample. The developed method displayed a wide linear range of 9 pM to 9 nM (1 pg/mL – 1 ng/mL) and a LOD value of 4.5 pM (0.5 pg/mL). Similar to graphene, carbon nanotubes have also been explored to develop histamine sensors, due to their characteristic electrocatalytic activity, which facilitates electron transfer between the electrode surface and electroactive species. For example, Stojanović, Mehmeti, Kalcher, Guzsvány, and Stanković (2016) developed a differential pulse voltammetric based sensor by immobilizing the single-walled carbon nanotubes on the electrode for the determination of histamine (Stojanović et al., 2016). On the electrode, the oxidation of histamine involves 4H+ and 4 e− which undergoes an irreversible electrochemical oxidation reaction with a peak potential of +1.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in PBS (Fig. 7) (Švarc Gajić & Stojanović, 2010). At optimized differential pulse voltammetric parameters, the current response of histamine was found to be linearly proportional to its concentration ranging from 4.5 to 720 μM. A low limit of detection of 1.26 μM and a limit of quantification of 3.78 μM of histamine along with good reproducibility was obtained with negligible interference in the presence of most of the common interfering compounds. The practical applicability of this method was demonstrated by determining the histamine content in commercial beer and wine samples with a good recovery percentage (98–105%) and a relatively low standard deviation (RSD = 0.48–3.40%).