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  • It is worth mentioning that in


    It is worth mentioning that, in this study we only observed the responses of CYP450 to the short-term exposure of DSP toxins (12 h). However, the toxic effects of DSP toxins to bivalves appeared to abate with longer exposure (Pinto-Silva et al., 2005; Flórez-Barrós et al., 2011; Prego-Faraldo et al., 2015). Taking account of the complexity of OA metabolism and toxicity in bivalves, further studies are warranted to functionally dissect the mechanistic role of these molecules on intricate OA metabolism and detoxification in bivalves.
    Conclusion We found that various CYP450 isoforms exhibited distinct expression profiles in gill and digestive gland in P. viridis. The expression level of CYP3L3 and CYP2C8 is organ-specific, while CYP3A4, CYP3A1 and CYP2D14-like displayed higher expression level both in gill and digestive gland. After exposure to P. lima, expression level of CYP3A4, CYP2D14-like, and even CYP3L3, CYP2C8 significantly altered in the gill and/or digestive gland of P. viridis. Meanwhile, the bivalve individuals accumulated high levels of OA in the gill and digestive gland. When the CYP3A4 activity was inhibited by KTZ, OA content in digestive gland significantly decreased. These data suggested that CYP3A4, CYP2D14-like, and even CYP3L3, CYP2C8 might be involved in early DSP toxins metabolism during the P. lima exposure. Ketoconazole could depress CYP3A4 activity in bivalves, and therefore altering the metabolism process of DSP toxins in bivalves.
    Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (40976065, 41576116).
    Introduction Arachidonic DNQX disodium salt synthesis
    via cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) can elicit the formation of lipid mediators with vasoactive actions: the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) mainly vasodilators and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a vasoconstrictor [1]. Both these compounds are natriuretic at kidney level. Since the 80’s their putative role in different animal models of hypertension and/or stroke has been explored but their role in humans seldom tested also due to the difficulty to obtain an accurate dosage [2]. More recently, the discovery of the specific receptor for 20-HETE have revitalized the research in the field and offered some other molecular target to be explored [3]. Since 2000, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism via CYP450 have been tested for a possible association with blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) Fig. 1. In 2011, a previous review by our group collected the most significant studies and concluded that some SNPs in CYP enzymes can be associated with either hypertension or vascular disease, especially stroke with notable sex-specific effect [4] Fig. 1. The present narrative review wants to update the state of the art on the field trying to summarize evidences that come from newer studies, meta-analyses and genome wide association studies. Moreover, the actual review aims at offering a rapid glance to nutrition studies looking for substances that can interact with this metabolic pathway pushing the formation of these compounds or others formed by CYP450.
    Funding The study is supported by a grant of the Italian Ministry of Health (GR-2011-02349630) to CF in agreement with the ‘Regione Veneto’ and the ‘Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di Verona’.
    Introduction In terrestrial ecosystems, earthworms play an important role in the formation and the development of soil (Lee, 1985). They can successfully adapt to various types of polluted environments, and ameliorate the contamination, thus there must be a robust detoxification capacity in their tissues and organs, to resist the harmful effects of the many xenobiotics encountered in the environments they inhabit. However, there have been very few studies to date investigating differences in protein expression in the detoxification systems of earthworms and whether there is variability linked to the habitat occupied. For example, the different burrowing habits of epigeic (shallow-burrowing) or endogeic (deep-burrowing) species may result in differences in pattern of contaminant exposure. Similarly, little is known about the behavioural ecology of many earthworm species, so that if juveniles and adults of a species have differing habitats or behaviours then, logically, differences in protein expression could be expected.