We next considered the mechanism of the hepatospecific decre
We next considered the mechanism of the hepatospecific decrease in CYP3A exerted by EGCG. We examined the possibility that orally administered EGCG was absorbed from the intestine and directly decreased the CYP3A expression level in the liver. Although the z vad fmk rate of orally administered EGCG is low, intraperitoneally administered EGCG is rapidly transferred to the blood (Cai et al., 2002, Li et al., 2010) (Fig. 6). Thus, to examine the direct effect of EGCG in the liver, we analyzed the CYP3A expression level in the liver after an intraperitoneal administration of EGCG to mice; our results indicated there were no changes in the hepatic CYP3A expression level following the intraperitoneal administration of EGCG (Fig. 5). It was also shown that an increase, rather than a decrease, in the expression level of CYP3A was observed when EGCG was treated to HepaRG cells (Fig. 7). This increase was consistent with a previous reported that demonstrated an EGCG-induced increase in CYP3A promoter activity (Kluth et al., 2007). Therefore, it was suggested that the probability that the hepatic CYP3A expression level was decreased by a direct effect of EGCG in the liver was low. This view was also supported by the fact that the hepatic CYP3A expression level decreased even though the oral administration of EGCG did not result in a high EGCG concentration in plasma (Fig. 6). EGCG is transferred to the blood and is excreted into the urine after sulfate conjugation or glucuronic acid conjugation (Lee et al., 1995). Therefore, although the possibility remained that the CYP3A expression level was decreased via these conjugates, the effect was considered to be small when accounting for the low absorption rate of EGCG from the gastrointestinal tract (Chen et al., 1997). We next examined the possibility that the hepatic CYP3A expression level was decreased via an indirect effect of EGCG. Previously, it has been reported that EGCG suppressed the growth of intestinal bacteria of Clostridium spp., which are involved in the production of secondary bile acids (Okubo et al., 1992, Unno et al., 2014, Yun et al., 2015), and that the LCA concentration in the feces was decreased by polyphenols such as catechin, curcumin, and caffeic acid (Han et al., 2009). We reported that when LCA was administered to germ-free mice that lacked intestinal bacteria, the hepatic CYP3A expression level increased (Toda et al., 2009c). It was suggested that the hepatic CYP3A expression level increased because LCA acted as a ligand for the nuclear receptor, PXR, which controls the expression of CYP3A. We also revealed that when antibiotics were administered to mice, the level of LCA-producing bacteria decreased, which caused a decrease in LCA concentrations in the colon and led to a decrease in the CYP3A expression level in the liver (Toda et al., 2009a, Toda et al., 2009b). It was also revealed that, although the level of LCA in the liver was below the detection limit, the level of taurine conjugate of LCA, which could reflect the LCA level in the liver, decreased when the LCA concentration in the colon decreased (Ishii et al., 2014). Based on the above findings, we attempted to prove the hypothesis that EGCG decreased the expression level of CYP3A in the liver via the following mechanism: EGCG that was not absorbed from the intestine was carried to the colon, which caused a decrease in the level of intestinal bacteria with 7α-dehydroxylase activity, and lead to a decrease in the LCA concentration in the colon. As a result, the level of LCA reaching the liver decreased, and the nuclear translocation of PXR in the liver was suppressed, which ultimately lead to a decrease in the expression level of CYP3A in the liver. The EGCG concentration in the colon of mice that were orally administered EGCG was already high on the second day of EGCG administration, and remained almost identical to the level in mice that were administered a diet containing EGCG for 10days (Fig. 12). The levels of intestinal bacteria of Clostridium cluster IV and Clostridium cluster XIVa, which possess 7α-dehydroxylase activity, and the LCA concentration in the colon decreased on the second day of EGCG treatment (Fig. 9, Fig. 11). Similarly, the expression level of PXR in the liver fraction also decreased on the second day of EGCG treatment (Fig. 8B). In contrast, the concentration of LCA in the colon and CYP3A in the liver of the mice that were administered intraperitoneal EGCG were almost the same as the control group (Fig. 5, Fig. 10). Therefore, it was suggested that the decrease in the hepatic CYP3A expression level observed when EGCG was orally administered could be caused by the decrease in colon LCA concentrations associated with the changes in the intestinal flora. In addition, the administration of EGCG caused not only a decrease in colon LCA concentrations but also a decrease in the concentration of DCA, a secondary bile acid acting as a ligand for PXR in the colon (Xie et al., 2001) (Fig. 9). Therefore, it is considered possible that the decrease in DCA is also involved in the decrease in CYP3A expression level observed after the administration of EGCG. However, additional studies are required in the future to determine the extent to which LCA and DCA are involved in the decrease of CYP3A expression.